6.7 Hybrid Cooperatives - Business and Member Communities


  • Anu Puusa University of Eastern Finland
  • Iiro Jussila LUT University
  • Pasi Tuominen University of Eastern Finland
  • Sanna Saastamoinen University of Eastern Finland
  • Peter Davis University of Leicester


The Dual Nature, Cooperative Purpose, Cooperative Management, Cooperative Governance, Co-operative


Unique characteristics of co-operative model stem from the cooperative mission and purpose. The dual nature of co-operatives means that the model combines the business role and the member community role in a unique way. In both theory and practice this duality needs clarification: What was the original idea and purpose of co-ops and how can the duality be theorized? How does the duality manifest itself in practice from the perspectives of management, corporate governance, owner-member, employee, region or society? The combining theme of this track is the unique identity of co-operatives and movement’s significance that goes well beyond economic factors.


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Levi, Y. & Davis, P. (2008). "Co-operatives as the "enfants terribles" of economics: Some implications for the social economy." Journal of Socio-Economics, 37 (6), 2178-2188.

Mazzarol, T., Clark, D., Reboud, S. & Limnios, E. M. (2018). Developing a conceptual framework for the co-operative and mutual enterprise business model. Journal of Management and Organiza-tion 24(4), 551–581.

Novkovic, S. (2012). The balancing act: Reconciling the economic and social goals of co-operatives. The Amazing Power of Cooperatives, 289-299.

Puusa, Anu, Mönkkönen Kaarina & Varis Antti (2013). Mission lost? Dilemmatic dual nature of co-operatives. Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management (2013)

Spear, R. (2000). The Co-operative advantage. Annuals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 71(4), 507-523.