Who is a cosmopolitan? Conceptualising the phenomenon in International Management


  • Niina Nummela University of Turku
  • Riikka Harikkala-Laihinen University of Turku
  • Eriikka Paavilainen-Mäntymäki University of Turku
  • Johanna Raitis University of Turku


Cosmopolitan behaviour has gained more momentum in the recent decade due to increased mobility, shifts in the forms of working, and the technological developments enabling nomadism. International business as a field features many characteristics that can be associated to cosmopolitan behaviour, such as transnational and global entrepreneurial migration, international mobility and careers of global and self-initiated expatriates. However, cosmopolitan behaviour as an individual concept yet lacks clear conceptualization within international business, as the existing concepts do not paint the full picture. This study explores the conceptual gap via qualitative life course narratives among Finnish-born cosmopolitans to offer some preliminary findings and insights.





3.2 International Migrants in Business