6.7 Hybrid Cooperatives - Business and Member Communities

  • Anu Puusa University of Eastern Finland
  • Iiro Jussila LUT University
  • Pasi Tuominen University of Eastern Finland
  • Sanna Saastamoinen University of Eastern Finland
  • Peter Davis University of Leicester
Keywords: The Dual Nature, Cooperative Purpose, Cooperative Management, Cooperative Governance, Co-operative


Unique characteristics of co-operative model stem from the cooperative mission and purpose. The dual nature of co-operatives means that the model combines the business role and the member community role in a unique way. In both theory and practice this duality needs clarification: What was the original idea and purpose of co-ops and how can the duality be theorized? How does the duality manifest itself in practice from the perspectives of management, corporate governance, owner-member, employee, region or society? The combining theme of this track is the unique identity of co-operatives and movement’s significance that goes well beyond economic factors.


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